Category: oxgmtgaxrqsy

  • Enzo Zidane, very close to debut on Friday with Almeria

    first_imgHis signing was the bomb of Turki Al-Sheikh when the winter window expired. Although the UD Almería publicly terminated its workforce with the assignment of Francis, the name of Enzo Zidane was last time in LaLiga, being the new media name in the Almeria of the sheikh and Guti, the seventh and last incorporation of the Almeria Despite going in second position.The son of the coach of Real Madrid has appeared today for the first time in the premises of the Stadium of the Mediterranean Games to sign his new contract. Tomorrow Almeria rests and now it will be tomorrow when Enzo is exercised for the first time under the orders of José María Gutiérrez, which has surplus in the engine room.Yes, the fact that the rojiblanco coach did not leave anything happy of the meeting that his team played yesterday at the Nuevo Los Pajaritos Stadium, with slit included, will cause that there are several novelties in the eleven type of José María Gutiérrez. It would be weird to see Enzo of the game with so few days of training, although it is not far-fetched that he enters the second half and makes his debut with the Almeria elastic. Not surprisingly, the first winter reinforcement, Kaptoum, has been indisputable So far for Gutierrez. Another of the new ones, Costas, debuted before Ponferradina just a few hours after the agreement was closed (yesterday he also played 90 minutes), while Villalba, signed last week, completed the entire meeting yesterday. It was also the debut for Barbero, so that of the seven additions, only Sivera, Francis is missing (I could do it on Friday because of Baliu’s injury) and Enzo himself.last_img read more

  • Urey Warns Against Nepotism

    first_imgIn the awake of the race to succeed President Ellen Johnson Sirleaf, political and business heavyweights have begun making promises to electorates in order to secure their votes come October 2017.The latest of these, former Liberia Maritime Commissioner and chairman of one of the largest telecommunications service providers in the country, Benoni Urey, has already begun to unveil his vision of progress for Liberia.According to him, no member of his family will occupy top government position if he is elected president of Liberia.“We will tackle corruption,” he said over the weekend in Monrovia during the celebration of his newly-formed party, the All Liberian Party (ALP), which was recently certified by the National Elections Commission (NEC) to operate as a legal political institution in the country. “I’m sending a warning to all my relatives, friends and associates, no matter who you are; you will be the first I will set example on when it comes to corruption.”He noted that no member of his family will be seen in high position like in the case of other Liberian presidents. He however maintained that for his personal and family security, he would make an exception to place a close family member at the helm of the Executive Protective Security (EPS).Urey told journalists after his party was certificated by the NEC that his intention to establish a political party is to bring “unity and maturity” to the political platform.He proposed the strategy of “engagement” as cardinal factor in his presidential bid.Delivering his intention message to his supporters and well-wishers, Urey asserted, “everywhere I have traveled in Liberia, I am confronted with the needs of our people.“From Sinje to Foya, Todee, Gbarlatua, Tappita, Tchien, Rocktown, and Grand Cess; with the undying love I possess in my heart for you my fellow citizens; I will do everything in my power to move you forward. This I pledge to you. Remember, Ben cares.“This pledge is borne out of a desire to critically review ways to manage, harness and fully utilize the latent energy that is inherent in the willpower of the people.“To my fellow partisans across the length and breadth of this nation and those in the Diaspora, we are now a legal, full-fledged political party. But let this certification serve as a mandate to us to partake in this most important process [of] nation-building.“Let us view this as an opportunity to strengthen the pillars that uphold our nation. We have a lot of work to do. Cognizant of the challenges ahead, we must roll up our sleeves and tighten our belts for the battle of nation building. The task is certainly a difficult one but it is achievable.” Meanwhile, NEC has described Urey’s party as “responsible and mature” and will like to conduct business with the institution.Share this:Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window)Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window)last_img read more

  • Mustapha Raji to Win LFA Presidency in Style

    first_imgMustaphi RajiIt is always clear when the probabilities are, and not in your favor. Good example is the recent national elections: Anyone with a great sense of realism knew that since the numbers were in favor of the then Ambassador George Weah, winning the elections was a foregone conclusion.But why the other 21 candidates did not realize that or why they refused to accept that reality is for future historians to grapple with.Similarly, Mustapha Raji, president of LISCR FC and Gardnersville FC who recently declared his intention to contest for the Liberia Football Association incoming presidential elections, is favored by a majority of the stakeholders.Interviews conducted among stakeholders recently have confirmed that Raji is their choice. “He is our choice even before the elections are announced,” said a longtime supporter of the man who is adored by his players.The March LFA elections also has three other candidates, they are: Adolphus Dolo, president of Nimba United; Musa Shannon, vice president for administration at the Liberia Football Association; and Rochelle Woodson, an Executive Committee member of the LFA, who has had issues with the current LFA Administration of Hassan Bility.Without a doubt, all the contestants see something wrong with the administration of football in the country. Presently, the LFA owes its employees for the last four months.Again, due to money problems, it may be recalled that the LFA sacked several youth coaches. Sadly, on top of that, the LFA recently reported that US$600,000 fraudulently ‘disappeared’ from the its account when some false documents were presented to FIFA auditors.“Where was Musa Shannon when the money disappeared?” asked another football lover. He said problems affecting Liberian football cannot be divorced from Shannon, which will make his desire to win the LFA presidency difficult.Another said: “Shannon should learn from the past because the majority of the stakeholders are not comfortable with his role at the LFA, especially with the trend of Liberian football.”While Nimba United’s Adolphus Dolo is credited with growing Nimba United and also building a mini-stadium in Mount Barclay, he has had brushes with the LFA and even suffered a two-year suspension for fielding an illegal player in a match which is said to have dented his chances because, by his suspension, it meant that he abused the concept of fair play which is highly encouraged in the game.Ms. Rochell Woodson, a member of the Executive Committee of the LFA, was recently suspended by the same body for her failure to have responded to certain accusations against her. And whether her suspension was fair or not, that it happened has created a credibility problem for her and many stakeholders are not comfortable with her desire to contest the elections.Mustapha Raji, the favorite is the only man left standing tall.A very careful man, he has not kept silent on any issue that affects the development of soccer, the world’s most popular game.In fact, he is on record to have requested the LFA to put the US$600,000 issue as an agenda item to be discussed at the association’s Ordinary Congress, that will take place before the elections in March.Mustapha is reported to have made a huge investment in sports, starting with the youth and two other teams.Each of his teams has over 30 young players who are paid monthly, with medical incentives.“He has a vision for Liberian football,” a stakeholder said. “Raji’s vice president-designate will be Sekou Konneh of BYC Football; and so Liberia soccer will survive the hurdles that frustrate it.”Share this:Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window)Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window)last_img read more

  • Extension of GECOM chair illness a ploy designed to delay elections

    first_img– PPP commissioners say in joint statementWhile acknowledging that any illness of the Guyana Elections Chairman (GECOM), retired Justice James Patterson is regrettable, Commissioners representing the Opposition People’s Progressive Party (PPP) claim it is a ploy designed to delay the holding of elections.In a joint statement, the Commissioners – Bibi Shadick, Sase Gunraj and Robeson Benn – therefore urged that GECOM be alert to its duty and responsibilities as mandated by the Constitution and that no action be undertaken to subvert these intentionally.“…we do wish him a speedy and a full recovery, we cannot be unmindful of a possible situation existing where the said extension of illness is a ploy designed to delay the holding of General and Regional Elections within the constitutionally determined 90-day timeframe consequent on the previously referenced Resolution of the National Assembly,” the Commissioners stated.The Commissioners further stated that the holding of meetings of the Sub-Committees of GECOM should resume discussing, determining and guiding GECOM’s actions and schedules necessary for the holding of elections in the constitutionally mandated 90-day timeframe.This activity, according to them, will demonstrate that the GECOM is alert to its duty and responsibilities to be the nation as mandated by the Constitution. The commissioners have also called on civil society and the international community to take note and be vigilant with respect to the unfolding situation at GECOM, especially as it relates to a possible delay.On Tuesday, Patterson, circulated an agenda for the Wednesday, January 8, statutory meeting of GECOM slated for 13:00h. The Opposition Commissioners said they responded to the proposed agenda sent by the Chairman, requesting the inclusion of ‘GECOM Preparations for Elections’ as a priority issue for consideration at the said meeting.“The natural and obvious inclusion of this agenda item was expected as a consequence of the resolution on the no-confidence motion of December 21, 2018 in the National Assembly,” they added. However, less than three hours before the meeting the announcement was made that the Chairman was unwell and that his medical leave had been extended.“A later GECOM Media Advisory stated inter alia; “…his medical leave has been extended following a visit to his doctor on January 7, 2019”. It is passing strange that this information was not passed on to all Commissioners on January 7, 2019,” the Commissioners observed.Patterson has not been at work since November 30, 2018, and there is no clear indication as to when he could return, as a timeframe for the extended sick leave has not been provided. The last meeting of Commissioners was held on November 27, 2018.Following his appointment as GECOM chair, Opposition Leader Bharrat Jagdeo has noted with concern that Patterson might not be best suited for the post given his seniority. But President David Granger had argued that Patterson who was at the time of his appointment in 2017, 84-year-old, is ‘fit and proper’ for the post, in accordance with the Constitution of Guyana.In October 2018, the PPP filed leave to appeal the October 19, 2018 decision of acting Chancellor Madam Justice Yonette Cummings-Edwards and fellow Appellate Court Justices Dawn Gregory and Justice Rishi Persaud that effectively declared Patterson’s appointment constitutional. The matter is now before the Caribbean Court of Justice (CCJ).last_img read more

  • Arsenal hero argues with Gunners fans about Monreal ‘foul’ for Vardy pen

    first_img Jamie Vardy scores against Arsenal for Leicester City 1 Leicester City took the lead in their crunch game away to Arsenal thanks to a Jamie Vardy penalty.The English striker scored his 19th Premier League goal of the season, after the Foxes were awarded a penalty for a Monreal foul on Vardy.Meanwhile, on Twitter, former Arsenal defender Lee Dixon was left debating the merit of Leicester’s spot-kick after he tweeted that there was “no doubt” it was a penalty.Take a look at the discussion and share your thoughts on the subject by leaving a comment below.last_img read more


    first_imgDDTV: There’s loads of brains in the McGeehin family – brothers Ronan (13) and his brother Eóin (14), are students at Coláiste Ailigh in Letterkenny.And they wanted to develop an early warning system to tell motorists when the road surface becomes icy.With in-car gauges not always accurate, the boys have come up with an incredible prototype which could save lives on our roads.Watch this video to see their incredible idea on show at the BT Young Scientist of the Year exhibition in Dublin.  DDTV: COLÁISTE AILIGH BROTHERS IN STUNNING YOUNG SCIENTIST INVENTION was last modified: January 10th, 2014 by John2Share this:Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window)Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window)Click to share on LinkedIn (Opens in new window)Click to share on Reddit (Opens in new window)Click to share on Pocket (Opens in new window)Click to share on Telegram (Opens in new window)Click to share on WhatsApp (Opens in new window)Click to share on Skype (Opens in new window)Click to print (Opens in new window) Tags:Colaiste AilighletterkennyMcGeehin brotherslast_img read more

  • Being here no longer enough

    first_img Between 1986 and 2002, the Angels had a 15-season playoff drought. With their playoff appearance this season, the Angels have reached the postseason in three of four seasons, giving the club the tag it had been striving for: perennial contender. “(Reaching the postseason) qualifies us to go on and finish the job we set out to do,” Angels general manager Bill Stoneman said. “That’s really what it is. It takes a long time, a lot of aches and pains, ups and downs to get to the point we’re at. It’s an eight-team race. But we’re not to the point we want to be.” AD Quality Auto 360p 720p 1080p Top articles1/5READ MOREThe top 10 theme park moments of 2019 The Angels beat the Yankees in six of 10 meeting this season, and in the Joe Torre era (starting in 1996), the Angels are the only team with a winning record vs. the Yankees (49-48). The Angels also beat the Yankees in the two clubs’ only postseason meeting in 2002. The Angels’ secret? Pretend it’s not the Yankees in the other dugout. “We never talk about it,” Angels first baseman Darin Erstad said. “We just go out and play just like it’s any other day, any other team. It doesn’t matter who we’re playing. When we play them, we don’t change our game.” The Yankees are hot, having gone 20-10 in September/October to pass the Boston Red Sox and win the AL East. They have the possible MVP in Alex Rodriguez, who hit 48 homers and drove in 130 runs. Jason Giambi (32) and Gary Sheffield (34) also hit more than 30 homers. Hideki Matsui (116) and Sheffield (123) also drove in more than 100 runs. Only Vladimir Guerrero exceeded 30 and 100 for the Angels. Facing the Yankees lineup poses a considerable challenge for the Angels’ pitchers, starting with Bartolo Colon, their Game 1 starter against Yankees starter Mike Mussina. “I think all of them are dangerous,” Colon said through an interpreter. “One thing that comes to mind, to me, they are all cleanup hitters. That’s the way I see the Yankee lineup.” It’s the way it’s supposed to be in New York, where nothing short of winning the World Series will do. “When you play for the Yankees, when you work for the Yankees, getting to the World Series is one necessary item that needs to take place,” Yankees manager Joe Torre said. “Winning the World Series is one above that.” The Angels also go into the series playing well, having won 14 of 16 to finish the regular season with 95 wins, matching the Yankees. The Angels got home-field advantage because they won the season series. While any team would prefer to go into the playoffs on a roll, history shows it isn’t that important. The Angels struggled in the final week of the season in 2002, then got hot in the playoffs and won it all. Last season the Angels finished strong, then got swept by the Red Sox. “In the playoffs you never know, it doesn’t matter how many times you played a team or if you won the season series,” said Angels shortstop Orlando Cabrera, who won a World Series ring with the Red Sox last season. “The playoffs are different. You don’t even know how your teammates will react.” What the Angels are counting on is for their pitching staff to react the same way it did during the regular season. All five of their starters have a record of .500 or better, and they have the probable Cy Young Award winner in Colon. They have one of the best bullpens in the majors, anchored by closer Francisco Rodriguez, who had 45 saves. “I can’t say enough about the pitching,” Erstad said. “They never complained about the offense, they kept getting people out. There’s no way we’d be here without them.” Jarrod Washburn (8-8) was the only pitcher not to win in double figures, but his ERA of 3.20 ranked fourth in the league. “In past years I’ve been disappointed not only in myself but as a staff,” Washburn said. “This year I felt we pitched like we can. Getting (Paul) Byrd in there made us strong one through five.” Starting pitching has been the Yankees’ biggest problem, but they’ve got huge late-season contributions from Aaron Small (10-0) and Shawn Chacon (7-3). And of course, there’s long-time Angels nemesis Randy Johnson. “If there’s one thing they’ve had issues with, it’s their starting pitching,” Angels manager Mike Scioscia said. “But they’ve gotten great contribution from guys to get into this position. And any time you have Randy Johnson in there, he’s a great pitcher that has postseason experience and is a big-game pitcher.” The Angels’ only real problem area this season has been their offense, but the bats have come alive in September/October, when the Angels averaged 4.9 runs per game. When the Angels scored at least four runs in a game this season, they went 73-24. Most important, the bats in the lineup that surround Guerrero have hit well in recent weeks, something the Angels desperately need because the Yankees are expected to pitch around Guerrero. “I’m going to treat (the playoffs) like I did the last couple weeks of the season,” Guerrero said through an interpreter. “I’m going to be even more patient because the guys behind me ended up responding. I’m not going to try to carry the team.” One key bat in the lower half of the lineup will be Juan Rivera, who finished the regular season on a hot streak. Rivera started each of the Angels’ final 17 games, hitting .333 with four homers and 14 RBIs in that stretch. Joe Haakenson can be reached at (626) 962-8811, Ext. 2239, or by e-mail at 160Want local news?Sign up for the Localist and stay informed Something went wrong. Please try again.subscribeCongratulations! You’re all set!center_img ANAHEIM — When the Angels clinched a wild-card berth for the 2002 playoffs, it was their first trip to the postseason since 1986 when they lost in seven games to the Boston Red Sox. But when the Angels take the field at Angel Stadium tonight to face the New York Yankees in Game 1 of the American League Division Series, simply being there is not enough. last_img read more

  • The Evolution of Darwinist Propaganda Tactic #8

    first_img(Visited 493 times, 1 visits today)FacebookTwitterPinterestSave分享0 Number 8 in our Baloney Detector‘s list of propaganda tactics is the Association Fallacy: “Associating what you want to promote with something people like, or something you want to criticize with something people dislike.” Darwinians have perfected this tactic. Like everything else in the evolutionary timeline, it evolved this way: abrupt appearance and stasis. This tactic goes way back in the creation-evolution debate.In 1981, Stephen J. Brush wrote, “to require teachers to give serious consideration to creationism is as unjustified as requiring them to teach other doctrines – such as astrology, alchemy and phrenology.”A debater against creation once said, “creationism is as dangerous to science as the Islamic revolution in Iran.”Michael Shermer has made Association an art form, constantly linking creationism to pseudosciences, the paranormal, and kooky ideas.More than one Darwin apologist has stated, “Evolution is a fact, like gravity.”Now, the Darwin bigots are repeating a new talking point that creationists are like conspiracy theorists. Kimberly Hickok at Live Science explains with DODO confidence, “Why Creationists Are More Likely to Buy into Conspiracy Theories.” She uncritically reports on a “study” from Boston University that implicates both groups with “teleological thinking,” the idea that everything happens for a purpose. The study editors even bring in Voltaire’s silly character Pangloss whom the 18th-century deist used as a punching bag for his anti-religious views. The “study” of about 1400 college students, published in Current Biology, associated those who affirmed belief in creation with some well-known conspiracy theories. Then, the article throws in the fear-mongering tactic:Growing conspiracism could have severe consequences, Wagner-Egger noted, as conspiracy beliefs are linked with things like vaccine rejection and climate change denialism. People should be careful when following old beliefs, “because those beliefs are based on our cognitive biases,” he said.“Cognitive biases — like the teleological bias — develop early and are cross-culturally recurrent,” Kelemen said. “Given this, we should probably start intervening earlier if we want to effectively promote scientific literacy and reduce non-scientific mindsets, like conspiracy beliefs, that can promote fear and paranoia.”Yikes! Stop the creationists before they kill everybody! Intervene in kindergarten if necessary!Details of how the “study” was conducted, and controls used, were not reported in the article. The paper itself, though, is frank about its anti-teleological bias in the opening sentence:Although teleological thinking has long been banned from scientific reasoning, it persists in childhood cognition, as well as in adult intuitions and beliefs.This is patently false. Many branches of science, including SETI, cryptology, archaeology, and engineering depend on teleological thinking. The bias persists all the way to their concluding sentence:Because teleological and animist thinking are part of children’s earliest intuitions about the world and are resilient in adulthood, they thus could be causally involved in the acquisition of creationist and conspiracist beliefs. However, our results do not rule out the possibility that acceptance of such beliefs could, conversely, favor a teleological bias. Yet, in both cases, the ‘everything happens for a reason’ or ‘it was meant to be’ intuition at the heart of teleological thinking not only remains an obstacle to the acceptance of evolutionary theory, but could also be a more general gateway to the acceptance of anti-scientific views and conspiracy theories.At Evolution News, mathematical physicist Dr. Granville Sewell asks, “So, Who Is Doing ‘Pseudoscience’?” He shares a recent example where the pseudoscience label was used against him, and the trouble he had to go through to get his fake-science critics to acknowledge their error. He is not the only one who has had to go to great lengths to correct the smears by Darwinians.The “study” is worthless. It was concocted to promote Darwinism and to discredit creationism. Surveys like this can easily rig the questions to get the desired results, and omit essential procedures required to avoid arriving at false conclusions. These guys’ dogmatic conclusions preceded their ‘study.’ The mathematical window dressing amounts to bluffing . Notice this biased quote in the paper that admits the Association fallacy: “As a finalist and purpose-driven view of the natural world, teleological thinking has long been associated with creationism and identified as an obstacle to the acceptance of evolutionary theory.” Well, of course! Isn’t it obvious? Holding to a purpose-driven universe is surely an obstacle to acceptance of the Stuff Happens Law.Looking at the methods described in the paper, the Darwinians only found a very slight to moderate measure of significance to associate believers in creationism with belief in conspiracy theories. Speaking as a lifetime observer of the creation-evolution debate, and a friend of many leading creationists, I can say that conspiracy theorists among creationists are rare, especially among the leading creationist spokespersons. Organizations like CMI, AiG and ICR go out of their way to warn their readers about falling into conspiracy theories. A study that draws conclusions from uninformed students instead of leading lights is bound to arrive at fake-science conclusions.More egregious in their methods, however, was the omission of controls. They failed to ask participants, for instance, how their own thinking employs teleology. Darwinian reporters and scientists commonly say that such-and-such a trait “evolved to” do so-and-so, like a heart evolved to pump blood, or wings evolved to fly, or the FOXP2 gene evolved to give hominins language. Teleological thinking is rampant in evolutionary theory. It is denied in word only. Additionally, the study authors failed to ask participants who embraced evolution about conspiracy theories they believe in. They could have asked, for example, questions like: “True of False: creationist groups exist to undermine science,” or “True or False: creationists use science as a cover for religion,” or “True or false: creationists work to reduce science literacy and undermine American leadership in science.” Ask Bill Nye those questions and watch the conspiracy thinking overflow!The worst fallacy in this study is its philosophical childishness. Committing the either-or fallacy, the authors assume that all teleological thinking is bad science, and the Stuff Happens Law is good science. It’s hard to take these DODO scientists seriously. Lie Science, of course, is always happy to smear creationists any time the opportunity comes along. They are well-practiced in employing all the sins in the Baloney Detector.Exercise: Parse this article by Stephan Lewandowsky at The Conversation, who buys the creationism = conspiracism Association Fallacy hook, lyin’, and snicker. Find how many propaganda tactics in the Baloney Detector he employs in his short article. Here are a few to get you started:Association: “Teleological and conspiratorial thought share a number of features in common.”Loaded words: “scientific facts about evolution” and “rejection of evolution and the acceptance of its pseudo-scientific alternative, creationism.”Plain folks or Card Stacking: “A chain smoker who is confronted with frightening information about his habit might find it easier to accuse the medical establishment of being an oligopolistic cartel than to quit smoking.”Big Lie: “The new study takes the role of conspiratorial thought in creationism a step further. It suggests that creationism itself could be seen as a belief system involving the ultimate conspiracy theory: the purposeful creation of all things.” The Association Fallacy tries to generate bad emotions against a target group by linking it to undesirable groups.last_img read more

  • Reviving an Old Debate on Vapor Barriers

    first_imgPoly vapor barriers are a problemIt is GBA advisor Carl Seville who’s first to reply, with a comment that seems to summarize current thinking on the practice. Vapor barrier is really a misnomer, he says, when the poly should more correctly be called a vapor diffusion retarder. But leaving that aside for the moment, a poly layer can be “very problematic,” Seville says.“They are a disaster in warm humid climates, and even in cold climates, if there is any air conditioning being used,” Seville writes. “There is a big opportunity for vapor drive to the interior where it will condense inside the wall cavity. Vapor barriers in extreme cold climates can serve a purpose if they are installed without any gaps or perforations — if there are, moisture laden air will flow right through any gaps, minimizing its effectiveness.“In most warm climates, there is enough cold weather that walls dry to the exterior in the winter, so an exterior barrier is also problematic.”Experts in the field believe that careful air sealing, not a vapor barrier, is the real key to keeping moisture vapor out of wall cavities.“I’ll let Martin defend himself, but I must say a couple things,” adds Brett Moyer. “I think you really need to go back and review some Building Science 101. Who are these ‘experts’ at the AIA conference? ALL legitimate and respected building scientists do NOT recommend a vapor barrier/Class I vapor retarder anywhere but the most extreme cold climates. Homes in the lower 48 — Airtight Drywall Approach and a Class III vapor retarder (latex paint) is all you need.“The key to a durable wall assembly is air sealing, not vapor barriers.” The post was simply labeled “Martin Holladay” — for the GreenBuildingAdvisor senior editor — but the question from architect Stephen Thompson went to the heart of one of the most contentious building questions in recent history: is a polyethylene vapor barrier a good idea?Thompson tells Holladay he’s read much of what Holladay has had to say about vapor barriers, but he still is puzzled by several comments.“You believe that polyethylene film is not to be used as a vapor barrier,” Thompson says in his Q&A post. “I could not disagree more; after 10 years of work in Minnesota, I’ve seen what can happen when VBs are left out. All of the expert seminars at the AIA Convention insist that VBs are essential in cold climates. After viewing their photos of buildings turned icicle, I must agree.”Thompson makes two other points: that some GBA readers have implied an exterior vapor barrier is correct, when in fact that only makes sense in the deep South, and that some readers have referred to Tyvek, the house wrap made by DuPont, as a vapor or air barrer, which is not correct. RELATED MULTIMEDIA Why architects believe in vapor barriersIf architects are highly trained building professionals, why do some of them continue to promote the use of poly vapor barriers when experience suggests they can cause problems? Architect Bill Rose joins the discussion to offer this theory:“Architects are pretty much the last remaining defenders of the vapor barrier. Why is that?” Rose writes. “I try to explain it using the ideas of performance and prescription. The client, and the public, want performance. Prescriptions (standards, codes, etc. …) are invented as shortcuts to performance, and they facilitate commerce. Two problems: 1) prescriptions never get better over time, and 2) institutions accrue around them drawing profit and protection.“The vapor barrier is a prescription,” he adds. “It has outlived its usefulness. It detracts from performance at least as often as it provides benefit, all somewhat climate-dependent of course, and mostly it has no impact on performance. Buildings don’t need poly vapor barriers, architects need vapor barriers. My colleague Larry Elkin calls them ‘liability barriers.’ ”Rose refers readers to two papers, Insulation Draws Water and an ASHRAE standard on moisture control. Vapor Retarders and Vapor BarriersForget Vapor Diffusion — Stop the Air Leaks! Vapor Profiles Help Predict Whether a Wall Can DryAre Dew-Point Calculations Really Necessary?When Sunshine Drives Moisture Into Walls Although the practice is not required by code, some builders in cold climates continue to install a poly vapor barrier over the studs before the wall is covered with drywall. The poly is supposed to stop the migration of water vapor into wall cavities during the winter, where it would condense and cause problems such as mold or decay.But as building scientists learned more about the movement of air and moisture through walls and roofs, the practice was discouraged in all but the most extreme climates. Thompson’s question, especially because it comes from a building professional, revives this old debate once again and is the focus of this week’s Q&A Spotlight. RELATED ARTICLES center_img Podcast: Air Barriers vs. Vapor Barriers Beware of moisture driven inwardHolladay says an interior polyethylene vapor barrier “can work” in cold climates such as Vermont, Minnesota, and Canada, providing the building is not air conditioned, and there is no exterior foam sheathing on the walls. Still, he says, it’s not a great idea.Holladay directs Thompson to an article he wrote on vapor barriers and inward solar vapor drive. In it, Holladay discusses the origins of the vapor barrier recommendation, and some of the building disasters that resulted from using them in air-conditioned buildings.A Cincinnati builder, Zaring Homes, was actually driven out of business by moisture problems in brick-clad houses it built.But in the case of Zaring Homes, Thompson thinks the blame may have been unfairly leveled at the vapor barrier and not the fact that the brick veneer was installed without a “suitable cavity” behind it. A 2-in. air space behind the brick allows the masonry to dry out, and should be combined with brick vents and 2 in. of rigid foam insulation over the sheathing.“… And so, I stubbornly question if this discussion isn’t more about solid moisture barriers preventing water and water vapor from entering assemblies from the outside as opposed to air-conditioned poly properly positioned in a poorly designed moisture barrier assembly?” Thompson says. “Your patience please. It’s difficult to teach old dogs new tricks.”Holladay, however, thinks Thompson is confusing the effects of diffusion, water penetration, and air leakage. Inward solar vapor drive is a diffusion phenomenon that doesn’t have much to do with water penetration — and the problem can even occur in walls with an air gap.“Your concern about interior poly is misplaced, because wintertime moisture migration into wall cavities is mostly an air leakage phenomenon; diffusion plays only a very minor role,” Holladay says. “You need an interior air barrier, not a vapor diffusion barrier, to address the problem of wintertime moisture migration into wall cavities. In your original post, you mentioned ‘icicles.’ Ice accumulation in wall cavities is not a result of diffusion.” Our expert’s opinionHere’s what Peter Yost, GBA’s technical director, has to say:Bear with me while I make a couple of key points before getting to the question at hand.1. Building assemblies and materials get wet in one of four ways: bulk water, capillary water, air-transported vapor, and vapor diffusion.2. In general, we need to worry about wetting in that order. There is the exception of solar-driven moisture being driven by vapor diffusion.3. Building assemblies and materials dry in one of two ways: free drainage (bulk water) and by diffusion or evaporation.4. We need to worry as much about how things dry as we do about how they get wet.Whether we are talking about vapor barriers or retarders, we are talking about keeping building assemblies and materials from getting wet by the least important mechanism for wetting, which is vapor diffusion. And if we are focusing on the vapor permeability of just one component or material in the assembly, we are not dealing with how these assemblies and materials are going to dry.If the choice is made to have an interior layer of polyethylene sheeting serve as the air barrier and the vapor retarder for outward moisture drive during the winter in a really cold climate — 9,000 heating degree days or more — be sure of three things:1. That the polyethylene is actually a complete air barrier as proven by a blower-door test result.2. That the assembly is designed to dry to the exterior.3. And that the building is not air-conditioned during the summer.Can you design and build assemblies that dry to the interior in really cold climates, have an interior air barrier not made of poly, and air condition that building in the summer? Yes, you can — any PERSIST OR REMOTE wall assembly can do just that, or any assembly designed using either or both of these approaches: vapor profile and dewpoint method analysis.Finally, install mechanical systems that manage interior relative humidity in cold climates to reduce vapor drive — in other words, a ventilation system. That, a continuous air barrier, and designing/building assemblies to be able to dry are much more important than any prescription for an interior vapor retarder — much less a barrier — in cold climates. The difference between air and moisture barriersThompson responds that despite this assertions, both the Canadian Building Council and the U.S. Department of Energy continue to recommend vapor barriers on the interior side of studs in cold climates.But Lucas Durand isn’t convinced that the practice is endorsed so broadly. “In my opinion, the National Building Code of Canada does quite a good job in distinguishing between vapor retarders and air barriers,” he writes. “My experience has been, however, that despite having clear guidance on distinguishing between the two, every building professional I’ve had the pleasure of dealing with has somehow had it drilled into them that they are something like the same thing,” he adds.“My best guess is that the building industry in Canada has built so many homes for so long that use a poly ‘VB’ as a vapor retarder and air barrier, they have somehow become synonymous with each other. The reality is you can get a lot more in terms of energy performance and durability if you understand the role of each as a separate entity within a wall system and make design choices that use sometimes different materials to optimum effect.”Robert Hronek suggests Thompson spend some time reading up on the topic at the web site of the Building Science Corp., where Joseph Lstiburek discusses how much moisture an air leak can carry through a small tear in a polyethylene vapor barrier.“Poly is rarely installed to the level of being an air barrier as well as a vapor barrier,” Hronek writes. “If its not an air barrier than it is not really a vapor barrier. Except in the most extreme climate a vapor retarder is all that is needed. Painted drywall is a vapor retarder. Add dense-pack or spray foam insulation and you don’t have the air flow carrying moisture into the wall. Take it farther with advanced air sealing and it gets better.”last_img read more